Protect and Survive was a handbook published in May 1980 by the British Government as part of civil defence effort initiated by the fact that in 1975 the Soviet Union achieved nuclear parity with the West for the first time. This situation worsened with the introduction of large numbers of SS20 missiles with MIRV (multiple interpendently targettable reentry vehicle) warheads, plus the invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979.
The fallout radiation advice in Protect and Survive was based on 1960s fallout shelter experiments summarized by Daniel T. Jones of the Home Office Scientific Advisory Branch in his report, "The Protection Against Fallout Radiation Afforded by Core Shelters in a Typical British House" which was published in "Protective Structures for Civilian Populations", Proceedings of the Symposium held at Washington, D.C., April 19-23, 1965, by the Subcommittee on Protective Structures, Advisory Committee on Civil Defense, U.S. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council (summary reprinted here together with the Protect and Survive handbook advice as published in 1980). Notice that the fallout radiation distribution was represented by measurements of the penetration of cobalt-60 gamma radiation which has a mean energy of 1.25 MeV (two gamma rays, 1.17 and 1.33 MeV). This is considerably more penetrating than the mean 0.7 MeV of fallout gamma rays. Therefore, the actual protection given against real nuclear weapon fallout would be far greater than that afforded in the peacetime cobalt-60 shielding measurements.
For further information on British nuclear weapon testing for civil defence, please see: http://archive.org/details/BritishNuclearTestOperationHurricaneDeclassifiedReportsToWinston
See also the 1957 edition of Dr Glasstone's "The Effects of Nuclear Weapons": http://archive.org/details/TheEffectsOfNuclearWeapons1957
Discussion at www.glasstone.blogspot.com
See also: The effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan (the secret U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey report 92, Pacific Theatre) located at: http://archive.org/details/TheEffectsOfTheAtomicBombOnHiroshima